Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton
St Helena roads,
JDH/1/2 f.15-23
Hooker, Sir William Jackson
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
© Descendants of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker
Correspondence from Antarctic Expedition
The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Original MS
29 page document over 9 folios

JDH informs his father, William Jackson Hooker, of the progress of the expedition via Madeira & Tenerife. Describes brief trip ashore at Santa Cruz & character & vegetation of the different islands of Cape Verde: wooded St Antaois, salt plain Sal & volcanic St. Jago. Collected at Porto Praya on St Jago, has wanted to visit the island since reading Christian Smith's account & recommended Lippold go, suggests how other botanists should collect there from a base in St Domingo. Saw the rocks of St Paul from the ship & his ship mates brought him a specimen of seaweed. On the coast are birds such as boobies & noddies. A Grapsus crab that steals their eggs. Considered going across the Atlantic to Pernambuco, Brazil, where JDH could have seen Adamson, Gardner & Louder. Instead they travelled via Trinidad, JDH describes the appearance of the island & the sparse vegetation, all the trees appeared to have been destroyed by the introduction of goats, there was only grass, tufts of Cyperus & a tree fern. Describes the voyage to St Helena, which was slowed down by the inferior sister ship HMS 'Terror'. JDH spent the time working on his plants in Captain Ross' cabin, drawing sea animals; crustacea & mollusca brought up in the towing nets, & taking meteorological readings. At St Helena he gave Harvey's letter to Chief Justice Wilde who has a house on Diana's Peak, the only place Dicksonia arborea grows & he has a new Brazil Araucaria in his garden. Describes the island & vegetation: it is largely barren but there are Scotch firs, a cabbage tree, Furze, 2 Rubus[?], introduced blackberry, native raspberry, a Ruellia, barren mosses, a Scotheimia, ferns & a tree fern. JDH is disappointed with his plant collection but has done all he can, there are sets for WJH, the Admiralty, Ross & Wilmot. JDH is also keeping a journal & sketchbook. McCormick has made a geological collection for Dr Fritton. JDH is reluctant to send specimens to the Royal Society Commission on Botany. Discusses his future career as a botanist & the pros & cons of naval service for a naturalist. The thought that no other botanist will go where he has on the expedition is appealing. Also includes two enclosures: some lengthy descriptions of excursions to: the Curral in Madeira, Tenerife, Porto Praya, St Jago & St Domingo valley in the Cape Verde Islands & some journal extracts dating from Dec 1839 & Feb 1840.


different epochs had flowed over the older basaltic rocks. Some mica was found in several places, in small flat dark colored plates. In some cases when there had been water courses, the rocks had assumed a red color from the iron they contained, which materially affected Captain Ross's magnetical experiments.
Goats & wild pigs are said to be very common, except one of the former we saw none. Some white trunks of trees were found here about 8-10 ft long. & 1-1 1/2 ft in diameter, such as we had seen all over the coast as we passed. They could not be blown down by a hurricane for they all lay in different directions, nor can I assign any other cause for their appearance than that the introduction of goats, by eating up the young herbage, & leaving the old wood to perish, had effected their destruction as was the case in St Helena (See Darwin). The stumps were often rotten & the soil about their roots is evidently in the same state as it has existed for many years, this I can prove by the cyperus (n.215) which grew near one of them roots & whose roots increase so that, in fine they make a tufted soil for themselves, increasing by innovations like Bryum Ludwigii, on this soil, the successive increments for many years being distinctly marked. Any internal heat which might have killed the tree must have killed this little plant, & a torrent which might have carried away the soil & thus effected their destruction would equally carry away this little grass. The rocks were full of the nests of the Tern & shearwater -- a spotless white color. Of insects I saw a Hemerobius, a small fly, cockroaches from the wreck of a vessel, & common house flys & some spiders. A land crab was very common under a stone, & commences opening his claws a putting to his mouth in a menacing attitude, evidently expressing a desire to eat you, opening his formidable mandibles at the same time, he is very agile though not nearly so much so as the Grapsus which is hence very difficult to catch for its swiftness. The land crab did not occur on the very beach but a few feet above it as high as we ascended -- Capt. Ross when embarking attempted & very nearly succeeded in catching a sea snake 3 ft long
I saw no vestige of any other branch object of natural history on this curious island but what are mentioned above, except a very pretty fern that was given me[,] an Acrostichum? Which I lost as well as some of my other collections by a hearty ducking I experienced in embarking[.]

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St. Helena Roads
February 3d 1840.
My dear Father
It is now so very long since I had an opportunity of writing to you, that I am quite as anxious to let you know what has been done by us, as ever you can be to hear of me. We left Madeira most precipitately, as my hurried letter informed you, & set sail for Teneriffe [Tenerife]; while laying off the harbour of Sta. Cruz an opportunity was offered to me to go ashore for a few hours, during which time a letter bag was made up for England, & which was sent ashore by the boat that took us off again. My short excursion & the plants I found form part of the abstract of the Journal you will receive. The season was the very worst, everything being burnt up, still there were some good things & those were very remarkable being totally unlike anything that had occurred[?] to me before. From Teneriffe we directed our course to the Cape de Verd [Cape Verde] Islands, not that we knew we were going there, every thing regarding our destination has been kept a profound secret until we cast anchor in the harbours. We had previously no idea of going to Teneriffe, still less to the Cape de Verd & when we arrived there it was uncertain we were going to stay there a day or a week. You may remember I have often expressed a wish to go to the Islands, ever since reading Christian Smith’s account in Tuckey’s voyages, I urged Dr Lippold’s going there, the climate used to be objection to sending any European there, the its nature of the climate you will find detailed elsewhere, from what I have seen & experienced, I am sure that a temperate & judicious traveller could reap a harvest in reasonable safety, by going to the hills for two months after the rainy season, when he could employ his time in perfect safety during other seasons, by wearing a light parasol & never over fatiguing himself. The Islands present very different features, & no doubt the vegetation is very varied. St Antonio [St Antao] is covered with wood, Sal is an island salt plain, St. Jago is a desert with a fertile & mountainous interior, & Fogo is a stupendous active Volcano whose reputed height is 7000 feet. The nature of the vegetation of St. Jago seemed to partake of the Sahara almost on the plains, of the Tropics in the Valleys & of Southern Europe on the Atlas range on the mountains. The season was very unfavourable, everything on the plains being parched up. I found 110[?] species in a tolerable state & saw perhaps 100 more in a useless state, this for a week is a fair proportion of the 300 that some collector, mentioned in the Amer. Bot. Hist., brought home, considering that Porto Praya is 12 miles from the fertile interior. Should any collector be willing to risk it, I should advise his learning a little Portuguese, going at once to Porto Praya & then to the town of St. Domingo, where he may acclimate himself well, the Natives are very innocent, with the affairs of the Portuguese he must not meddle, food is abundant & prices very bad & very cheap! The inhabitants of the country houses, chiefly Portuguese, are most hospitable. From Porto Praya we took a Westerly course to the rocks of St Paul. They consist of 8 or 10 detached rocks about 60 ft high constantly beat upon by a most tremendous surf. I had not an opportunity of standing upon them as the surf was too high to admit of many in the boat, & it was the Captain’s intention to take me on the following day. I had however

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a detailed description of them from my ship mates, with specimens of the only seaweed that is found there, a curious thing, of which I made a sketch. In some places the rocks are white with bird dung & covered with Boobies & Noddies. A crab inhabits the islands & steals the eggs from those birds it is a Grapsus, G. Pictus I name it, from Edwards’. The Boobie builds his nest on the bare rocks, the Noddie generally provides a sort of nest of feathers & the seaweed.
The Captain had landed with so much difficulty that he determined not to attempt it again, & accordingly my hopes were frustrated, not that I would have got anything further than some specimens of the seaweed, as not even a Lichen grows upon the rocks. We now stood across the Atlantic towards Pernambuco, & there was even some thought of going in there, so much so, that I cherished hopes of seeing Adamson, Gardner & Dr Loudon. However we ran down the Brazil coast to the Island of Trinidad*1a Lat 20o. It is the most remarkable, small island with a little vegetation on the western side, which is flat; the Lee shore[?] is very rocky & precipitous the few bays are very rocky & deep [1 del. word illeg.] & the one other only one which we could land at in the morning was cut off from the other parts of the Island by inaccessible precipices. We coasted round a considerable part of it before landing. There was no wood but a very remarkable tree on the tops of the highest hills 2000 ft ?, it struck me that it was a tree fern. All over the coast there were remains of barked white trees lying on their sides, but no live ones. They lay in different directions. I except[sic] the introduction of goats has, by eating up all the young trees & leaving the old ones to perish, destroyed the vegetation. I am at a loss to conceive how they have so universally disappeared. The place where we landed was perfectly stony & barren the rocks were quite bare of vegetation, nothing but a fern & grass & tufts of two species of Cyperus could be found. As the tide went out Capt Ross gave us the boat & we landed with considerable difficulty at another bay, I attempted from here to reach the tree fern but it was much farther off than I supposed, & as the boat could not wait long we were forced to return; it was now late & we went back for Captain Ross & then reembarked for St. Helena. We then ran to about 32oS. then north again & have ever since been beating up against the Trade wind for this place. The "Terror" has been a bad drawback to us, having every now & then to shorten sail for her. I cannot tell you how delighted we were to get here having been upon salt junk for 74 days, with hard biscuit for vegetables.
We arrived here on Friday evening. Several vessels have sailed for England since but none to which anyone thought it safe to entrust letters & as the ship that takes our bag the "William Enderby" is a crack ship you will probably not hear of us till this letter reaches you. The weather has been, during the voyage, very fine indeed, though very hot at times, so much so that sleeping on deck has been quite delightful. Rain predominates here, it has been pouring all the morning & yesterday, Sunday, I got a hearty drenching. My time during this sea life has not been I hope, so uselessly employed as I expected it might have been. Captain Ross as soon as he heard that I was anxious to work, gave me a cabinet for my plants in his cabin, one of the tables under the stern windows is mine wholly, with a drawer for my microscopes & locker for my papers &c. To me he is most kind & attentive, forestalling my wishes in many respects. One day he finds a box that will do nicely for Hooker then a seat at his cabin table & a place always clear for me at the table to sit down, when tired of standing at the drawing table. Two towing nets are constantly over head for sea Animals! McCormick pays no attention to them & they are therefore brought at once to me, almost every day I draw, sometimes all day long, till 2 & 3 in the morning, the Captain directing me; he sits on one side of the table writing &

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figuring at night & I on the other drawing, every now & then he breaks off & comes to my side to see what I am after. He knows a good deal of the lower orders of animals & between himself & the invaluable books you gave me I am picking up a knowledge of them. I have now drawings of nearly 100 marine crustacea & mollusca, almost all microscopic, some of them are very badly done, but I think that practice is improving me, & as I go on I hope that some will be usefull[sic] on my return. Were it not for drawing my sea life would not be half so pleasant to me as it is. In the Cabin, with every comfort around me I can imagine myself at home. Other duties are given me to do; indeed, on finding how idle I was to be I asked the Captain if I could not in any way be useful to him, when [2 del. words illeg.] he gave me the hygrometer to take 4 times a day at 9, 12, 3 & 9, &, for two days in the week, at 3AM: after the registrations there is the draw out tables for different meteorological purposes. On our arrival here I forwarded Mr Harvey's letter to Mr Wilde the chief Justice. He lives in the country & has been very kind, his house is at the back of Diana's Peak the highest spot in the Island 2694 ft. The tree fern Dicksonia arborea grows on it only, the vegetation of it is luxuriant, of other parts of the Island dreadfully barren. There are very few species here, no trees but some compositae (underwood). In Mr Wilde’s garden there is a fine Araucaria from Brazil, can it be a supposed new Brazil one that I think I have heard of, I go there again tomorrow to procure specimens. The coast of the Island consists of bare Volcanic rocks, the upland parts are wooded with Scotch firs & the Cabbage tree which I have not named yet. The Southern end is very beautiful. Furze is very abundant & 2Ru one an introduced Blackberry! Another a native raspberry with a large insipid berry. A beautiful Roellia grows on the peak with a flower like Menziesia polif[olia]. alba. also a Lo Mosses are rather plentiful though barren[.] I gathered a Scotheimia for the first time, much delighted I was. Ferns are numerous8 or 10 8 or 10 sp. The tree fern is sketched. & I procured a small trunk which I had to carry 7 miles.
My plants are all ready to be sent home, amounting to about 200 sp. some are good specimens others are only sent as mementos. I cannot expect you to be much pleased with them, though I assure you that I never spent an idle day ashore. [N]evertheless I never came off at night without being concerned that I might have done much more than was done. Capt. Ross wished me to delay sending them till we arrive at the Cape. When I tell you that I have made up 5 sets you may be able to gauge what I have done. The first Capt. R[oss] says must go to you, from the Admiralty, the second is the Admiralty set, the 3d I made up for the Captain which pleased him much, the 4th is Wilmots, the 5th consists of duplicates for you which Capt. R[oss] advises me are not worth sending through Capt. Beaufort, [1 del. word illeg.] last, one set going already to you, they should keep the other two. I shall send it with some other trifles from the Cape. The plants are sent to you under condition that they are not made public till our return. My journal is pretty full of matter, I send a short abstract of it to you, begging you not to criticise. I put down everything good bad & indifferent in it. My sketches are characteristic of the different places visited but miserably done. They are not intended for any person but you to see. I have examined some of my plants & shall send some of the sketches with them, but my time has been so completely occupied with sea Animals[?], that I have little other time for drawing – Mc Cormick has collected nothing but Geological specimens of which he sends home a large collection. They may be mentioned in the

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public[?] journals by Dr Fitton to whom they go. I do not care that some should be so, should they even be worth it which I doubt. All I care for is to please you. I grow more selfish every day & totally indifferent to public opinion, I still scorn the R[oyal]. S[ociety]. Commission on Botany & if I only hear that the present collection does not go to you the next first set shall be a different one, but you shall not be the sufferer. The R.S. order me to send them the first set & when they have a right to order me I will, as it is I am so sure that this set is for you, that I make it a tolerable one, good as a set it may be but I fear you will not think it so as a collection. One of your last questions on leaving Chatham was, "What do you intend to do on your return" & this if I remember right I gave an evasive answer, from not knowing the service I was bound for & I know from your affection for me that you would now like a good answer*1 now that I can form one [1 del. word illeg.] I shall give it honestly. The service I have entered is a very hard one for a naturalist. The particular branch I serve, in most particulars very good, though there is not such a scope for a Botanist as I could have wished, there is a splendid opportunity of improving oneself as a general Naturalist. I am very fond of the lower orders, though further than studying them here & perhaps one day in their future publication, I never intended to follow them upon any other branch[?] but Botany. Gaiety of any kind has still less charms for me than ever. Even at sea I am quite happy drawing Molluscae in the Capts Cabin, I can only wish that I had some books & was drawing plants. If ever on my return I have an opportunity of following up my Botany at ashore, I shall have the life of a hermit, as far as Society is concerned, like Brown[?] perhaps, without his genius, if I have to serve again I hope it will be in a service like this, congenial to my tastes & pursuits & not in the regular King’s service. The sea agrees with me & I am very happy on it as long as I can work, I am never ill nor have I been since leaving Chatham. This hot weather is my only & bitter enemy, from it I suffer very much in several ways.
*2 What I have said of my life & prospects is of course strictly private. I am very happy as I am, & see my way before me till we return when no foresight can tell what will become of me. I can always fall back on the service as a livelihood. I will never regret having joined this Exped[ition]. We must with Capt. R[oss] fall or fail completely never to try again[,] or succeed. No future Botanist will probably ever visit the countries I am going to & that is a great attraction.
Your m affectionate Son | J.D. Hooker [signature]

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Excursion to the Curral Madeira
October 23 1839
For some weeks before reaching Madeira a party had been formed among my messmates for the purpose of visiting the Curral, one of the most romantic spots on the Island. On our arrival & communicating our views to Mr Muir's son he most kindly volunteered to accompany us & to see that [we] were well provided with every thing necessary. Accordingly at 6AM we assembled ashore at Mr Muir's town house where an ample breakfast was prepared for us with Bananas, grapes & apples[,] guavas[,] figs & besides the ordinary English viands. -- Our party consisted of Mr Wood 3d Lieutenant, Mr Wilmot R.A., Mr Smith senior mate & myself. Mr Muir soon joined us & after breakfast we prepared for our start, small ponies had been provided for us & guides. We soon galloped through the Town & after passing the English Burying ground, a very pretty piece of enclosure planted with Palm trees & cypresses, emerged near the sea at the westward of the Town. For a few miles the roads were pretty good very narrow & stony but level, they soon however lost this character leading in the slopes of foot paths down the sides of ravines & over rocky burns, often so very steep that it appeared marvellous to us how our horses could retain their footing. The rivers here run through very narrow & deep ravines & are always most beautiful. The bottoms of these valleys are generally planted with the Caladium nymphaeifolium, sugar canes &c while their precipitous sides, wherever a ledge occurs are covered trellis work supporting vines, pumpkins, gourds &c among these a cottage generally appears almost hidden among the foliage. In the water of the rivers near the Town women are generally seen in the attitude of them of Glasgow Green washing their clothes by scrubbing them not with soap but with stones with which they pound the linen[?] most unmercifully. The interiors of the huts we visited are generally miserable in the extreme, the inhabitants perhaps generally a pig, a dog & a very fine tabby cat! AS we proceeded the roads became worse & worse still trusty animals conducted us slowly down the steepest declivities over rough & loose stones, never missing a foot, & on coming to an ascent however steep it was they would gallop up it with the utmost alacrity jostling the unfortunate rider most unmercifully. Our guides displayed nearly as much sagacity as their charges, the English have such a character that the horses are never let out without a guide, who is provided with a little harnessing[,] shoes &c & on the ascents they derive much assistance by hanging on to the horses tails, whilst no spurring or whipping will tempt the poor animal to rid itself & you from the incumbrance[sic] by kicking out behind. At another time however you look behind & seeing no guide, think this a fair opportunity of galloping forward & freeing yourself altogether of his company, when after proceeding for a mile or two you turn a

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corner & find to your chagrin your man patiently waiting for you upon a stone having by a short cut circumvented horse & rider. -- Our view had hitherto been much obscured by the naked hills among which we wound[.] Trees there were very few, chiefly small acacias the few cottages we past were beautifully situated & surrounded with vine plantations. -- An very characteristic Madeira ascent called "kill horse path" brought us to a splendid view of the sea, on one hand shut in by a tremendous black precipice, the highest cape in the Island. We here struck off the right towards the centre of the Island, the road as we ascended became more & more beautiful. The sides of the paths were thickly planted with China roses & fuchsias in as much profusion as Brambles in Scotland & in full bloom. Daturas, Hibiscus[,] Lantanas &c were in equal abundance growing under the vine trellises that hung over our heads. The cottages here were very dirty generally roofed with red tiles which were made to resist the wind by laying heavy stones upon them. After ascending about 1500ft the woody region commences, we entered it by a glen of the most romantic description bounded by split peaks of mountains whose sides were clothed with chestnut trees amongst which our path led us. Our pathway was strewed with the Vida maderensis, Amaryllis Belladonna, Fuchsias, Erica arborea & the Hypericum grandifolium which grew in similar spots to those in which the H. androsaemum does at home. Davallia canariensis was abundant but barren[,] other ferns were in profusion as well as some fine Labiatae, Globularia, Crepis lariniata &c. A rise of a few miles up this valley brought us to the Jardine alt[itude]. 2500ft a country seat belonging to Mr [Henry] Veitch the late British Consul t was most romantically situated in the chestnut forests. We alighted here were conducted over the grounds by the proprietor himself who paid us every attention & urged us to spend the day with him. From the altitude at which the Jardine is situated the temperature is lower than on the plains 62° being the mean annual temp. here & 10° higher at Funchal. The soil is composed of a fine vegetable mould lying upon volcanic rocks & is wound everywhere with chestnut trees, one of which now decayed has a trunk of 9ft diameter. Neither bananas[,] dates nor coffee will thrive here. The climate seems peculiarly adapted for the cultivation of Chinese plants, Camellias flourish & ripen seed, among other kinds we were shown C. oleifera a small shrub about 12ft with a flower of the size of the tea plant, the nut contains the seeds between which there are several drops of oil, the kernel is of course more oily still. Mr Veitch prosecutes the cultivation of the Tea plant with the greatest ardour & indulges hopes of profiting by his speculations on it & thus cutting out the E[ast]. I[ndia]. C[ompany]. He kindly communicated to me his views & projects allowing me to take specimens of the plants, telling me that it was his duty to impart his knowledge to me as Botanist to the Expedition & only hoped I would not use it to his disadvantage or the Islands. His plantation

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contains about 3-400 shrubs of 4 different kinds of Tea chiefly however the Black & green, they are paid little or no attention t but luxuriate there, the green especially being in every state of flower fruit & bud. The following are some particulars with regard to the shrubs. 1. The Sasanquah[sic] a shrub with coriaceous ovate leaves of a pale color. As a Tea Mr Veitch finds it useless. 2. The Gunpowder, Somewhat similar to the last but with the leaves less fleshy. The Tea made from this is very poor. 3d. The Green Tea. A taller shrub 8--10ft with ovate leaves bearing a profusion of flowers & fruit, very beautiful.
4 th. The Black Tea, with virgate branches & ovate lanceolate of a firm texture & bright green color. 5 th. A very fine shrub of the Olea fragrans with the flowers of which the Chinese scent their tea, a practice Mr Veitch reprobates.
The tea is prepared for use by collecting the fresh leaves old & young & putting them into a large tin funnel, they are then exposed to a heat of from 90° -- 100° by constantly stirring them the dried leaves fall out below & are kept for use. The owner very naturally praises his tea as equal to the true Chinese herb. Mr Muir however declares it to be execrable & is pronounced so by everyone -- Mr Bird calls it excellent, Mr Captain Crozier tells me he has often drunk it, & that what he tasted some years ago was detestable, but that now he has much improved it of late. Our tour was too short to wait for him to make us some. The only other remarkable plant I saw was the Cupressus glauca, with which the Island was at one time covered & of the wood of which all the old houses are built, it is now extinct according to the Penny Cylop[aedia]. When first discovered the whole country was covered with wood. After leaving the Jardine we continued ascending through the forest, the trees gradually dwindled away & nothing remained by a short herbage with numerous bushes of a Cytisus with which the hill sides seemed spotted. -- On emerging at the top of the valley alt[iude] 3500ft. wee were suddenly attacked by a party of pseudo Highlanders male & female, chiefly children, ragged dirty Portuguese each armed with a long pole iron shodded for climbing, with which they assailed our ponies causing them to spring over the rough ground at a rate which nearly rendered my seat untenable. This was done apparently for effect because we came suddenly upon one of the most splendid views I ever beheld. We stood upon the brink of a tremendous precipice which formed one side of a gully about 2000 ft deep & 1 3/4 of a mile across. On looking over nothing was seen but the tops of a few projecting trees & at the bottom a small stream that dashed along & was all but invisible. The opposite precipice was steeper & more bare than that on which we stood. To the right the gully led down to the Town of Funchal distant 10 miles with the sea bounding the narrow horizon[.] To the left the

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valley seemed to divide into two & was terminated by perpendicular escarpments of rocks of some miles long that rose into sharp peaks, one of them, the Pico Ruivo the highest in the Island. The mountain tops were covered with clouds detached pieces of which crossed the precipices at apparently a low elevation. The height of our position was about 3500ft. The sides[?] of the precipices were here & there covered with trees of the Laurus foetens & L. indicas whose deep green leaves heightened the gloom of some places & gave a fresh verdure to others. The whole scene very much reminded me of a view among the Grampians of Forfarshire where you come suddenly from upon the Glen of the Dale[.] The present scene however was infinitely grander & the numerous Larch trees gave it a different aspect. The river dashing at the bottom which looked like a mere burn brought Scotland forcibly to my mind it foamed away with a murmur which from the distance we could scarcely catch. The rocks around were reddish or black & volcanic often crossed by parallel fissures but too steep to allow of the water to cut out ravines on their sides. -- Curral means a place hollowed out to keep sheep in, it is doubtless the same as Corra the Highland name for a place scooped out among the hills, which I have been informed is the same as the English Cauldron. I commenced a diligent search here for alpine plants but neither the season nor situation favoured me[.] The extremely dry & barren rocks gave nourishment to a few a few withered sticks of Lempenisa[?] a few mosses Trichostomum & Polytrichum, a large Jungermannia & a few Lichens were all I could meet with. The ragged Highlanders for I can call them by no other name were most troublesome begging & offering us their climbing poles. On seeing me scrambling among the rocks they paid me particular attention. Two wild looking fellows with high peaked caps Carabooshes [small illustration of man, head only, in a cap] followed me everywhere & on one occasion when procuring a piece of the Laurus foetens they insisted upon holding me over the edge of the cliff. I could not help giving him a pistarum[?] for his disregarded services. The trunks of this plant are large, & grow nowhere but on the edges of ledges on the cliffs, the wood red, it was out of flower & fruit. On reascending I found my companions seated among some rocks surrounded by a brood of the most extraordinary ragged urchins I ever beheld of all ages from 5--12 dressed in tatters with high peaked carabooshes, their long hair streaming over their faces which were of a most determine Portuguese cast. They excited our compassion by kneeling round us & begging by holding out their hands with the palms together like Catholics invoking the Virgin. Among them was a very old woman whose husband had been lost among the cliffs or rather killed. They had large black eyes & seemed remarkably healthy though their almost only food is chestnuts[.] Even the babies in arms were sucking chestnuts -- a few dogs were spectral animals. The climate here was quite cold & as Mr Muir, Wilmot & myself ascended neighbouring hill we experienced a regular Scotch mist. We have met some very picturesque parties of men carrying wine skins on their shoulders, the[y] wore Carabooshes, & long poles, their trousers were tucked up at the knees & their feet clothed in wash leather buskins[.] The weight they carried was enormous it consisted of course wine from the N[orth]. part of the

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Island supplied by contract for making Brandy. After ascending to a little clear spring well we descended & rejoined our companions who were seated on a grass bank on which was spread through Mr Muir's kindness a splendid cold collation. Dr Lippold had joined us just before reaching the Jardine & he certainly amused us not a little during dinner. The young savages surrounded us during this meal & gaining confidence gradually approached nearer & nearer. Now the little German has a peculiar detestation of the Portuguese, he abhors them in short & could not bear these unfortunate urchins approaching us, accordingly he every now & then started up took his stick shouted hooroshed made grimaces & shoo his coat tails at them scaring the poor little things who would run up the hills with amazing agility their scanty clothing now & then tripping them & causing them to topple head over heels down the banks almost onto our table cloth. A small large Gryllus & small moth were the only Insects I saw, Goats the only animals. Swallows & a small green finch which I take to be the Canary bird & which bopped about in the chestnut forests were the only birds. I collected about 20 species of plants that I had not seen in my former excursion. The season was the worst for plants, being much too late. After distributing some few pieces among the mountaineers we descended. Our willing ponies after a nearly 30 mile ride needed no spur to make them gallop up hill or on a level, in descending they will & must have their own way. A few days afterwards Mr Oakley was dreadfully bruised by insisting on guiding his pony which accordingly fell with him & they both rolled down a steep bank together. Some of these animals are worth as much as £60. It was dark before we reached Funchal & then spent a most delightful evening at Mr Muir's.
A few hours excursion upon Tenerife: November 4th 1839
Immediately on nearing this Island I could easily with my glass detect the Euphorbia canariensis growing in immense abundance near the coast on the steep perpendicular rocks. The Island presents the appearance of an immense broken topped mountain intersected with valleys most characteristically sketched in [Philip Barker-[Webb] & [Sabin] Berthelot's Canary Islands. The rocks are very often quite covered to a great extent with the parallel lines for the vine trellises they were now bare & exposed the red soil looking most wretched. On the tops of the hills I could barely distinguish what I take to be the Pinus canariensis, at an elevation of 2--3000ft. During the whole time of our standing off the Island (we di not anchor) we caught only one hurried view of the peak. The Town of St'a Cruz (St. Croix) off which we stood

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was situated upon a plain at the foot of the Mts -- At noon we were about 3 or 4 miles to the E[ast]. of the Town when an opportunity occurring along with Mr Hallett (Purser) & Mr Wilmot & Mr Lefroy RA of the "Terror" I landed opposite the ship on a flat platform of rock very narrow between the sea & a fine precipice which was composed of strata of Lana, which & overlay an old beach of sandstone in which were fossil shells[.] The rock was full of fissures & underground communications with the sea. These holes were full of small fish, shrimps & a curious hermit crab Pagarus -- Lonaria Pavonia very small was found & also a very beautiful & minute Fucus belonging to the genus Acetabulum Blainville it seems very near the Fucus peniculus Turner Hist. Fuc. it was very small & adhered so closely to the rocks that I could hardly get a characteristic specimen. A large hairy crab was common but too wary & swift to be caught. Whilst collecting in one of the little tide left holes I was startled by a rumbling noise under my feet on looking round I saw suddenly a magnificent jet of water thrown up with a rushing noise to the height of almost 20 feet from a hole in the rocks. Iceland & the Geysers immediately came to my mind & shouted to my companions to come & see the phenomenon: after waiting some time we were gratified with a hearty ducking I need not add that the jet was caused by the impetus of a large wave forcing its way to an external opening through the subterraneous cavities in the rock. The effect was beautiful & heightened by a rainbow that played round it on the spray. McSwine[']s gun in N[orth]. of Ireland & the Souffleurs in the Mauritius (see Geograph[ical] Societies Transact[ions], if I remember right) are grand instances of this phenomenon. The rocks are in all these cases I think volcanic. The precipice under which we stood had growing upon it some very characteristic Canary Island plants. The Euphorbia for instance from which on being wounded the milky juice gushes out in great abundance. There grows with it another very remarkably[sic] plant one of the Compositae (n. 65 Ic[o]n[es?]). The stems are as tall nearly as thick as the Euphorbia but cylindrical & fleshy branched like a candelabra covered with the scars of leaves the flowers grow in terminal umbels among a few lanceolate leaves (Icn chas[?]) -- Remembering a remarkable Rubiaceous plant that pleased you in Dr Findlay's collection I looked out for it & was soon gratified by finding the Plorama[sic] canariensis (n.66 Icn) it is a most graceful bush like the weeping willow it hangs over the cliffs in abundance but was quite barren. The season was so bad that with all my hunting I could find only about 10 plants -- 2 Fuci, graminnea 1. (other wounded): Chenopodeae 2, Solanum, Labiatea Thymus? Plorama canariensis, Pyrethrum sp?, Senecio a small bush., Schyzogyne [Schizogyne] sericea Cap. DC, Artemisia canariensis, Sonchus? -- The Euphorbia Plorama, Sencio & Sonchus were the characteristic plants of the coast & we had not been ashore an hour when we heard a gun fired & on looking out to sea saw our recall the blue peter posted on board the "Erebus". This was provoking as our leave had been given till sunset[.] Seeing the gig pulling towards us I commenced filling my box & looking about me

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a bed of shells attracted my attention imbedded in some volcanic rock some feet above high water & covered to an immense depth with lava rocks of different epochs[.] In some places the rocks near the sea were porous when on receiving the spray of the sea the evaporation left a crust of the salt contained in sea water. The gig had now approached & hailed us to make haste on to Sta Cruz to take a letter bag that had been made up during our absence to the Consuls. The surf prevented her taking us on board so we set off at full speed under a burning sun for the town. The wind having sprung up the Captain had determined to start at once for the Southward. I had barely time to pick up a few specimens as we almost ran along. An hours walk brought us to the first fortification where the guns as in all the others I saw were dismounted & honeycombed. We met very few natives carrying bundles of fine wood of the Euphorbia, some rode on Donkeys, they were chiefly women atrociously dirty & ill looking, with a handkerchief of white Lawn thrown over the head & neck which gave them a very picturesque appearance. One or two small figs were the only fruit trees I saw except the Datura arborea, near the Towns. The second battery we passed a small dilapidated one is that from which Lord Nelson lost his arm whilst ascending the slopes of the mote about 1/2 mile off. The street approaching the town is broad &well paved but dreadfully exposed to the sun which was reflected frim the white washed walls. After running down to the hook & meeting the gig we again returned to the town to the Hotel kept by a Mr Richardson an English man. Here for the first time I saw the Camel used as a beast of burthen. We embarked after another signal had been made for us. On the hook there were lying some fine timbers of the Pinus canariensis they were not large but very red & more full of turpentine than any wood I ever saw, it burns with a beautiful white flame & is used for attracting the fish to the fishing boats at night. They were drawn along by oxen.
Porto Praya, St Jago, Cape de Verd Islands
Nov[embe]r 13th
The Cape de Verds are all more or less mountainous volcanic Islands some of them very remarkable. Sal a small low one contains an immense quantity of natural salt which is exported in quantities. Jago, another, is a splendid volcanic peak with a cleft crater on its summit, it is the outlet for the volcanic fires that dwell below the other Islands a safety valve as Mr Darwin calls it. The northern & central parts of St Jago are very mountainous the southern is a table land of immersed[?] streams of Lava with here & there a low hill about 1000ft high some of black trass rocks & others of red cinders & scoriae. These table lands are very barren little better than continuations of the Great Sahara desert covered here [&] there with scanty withered herbage which, how I cannot tell,

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affords pasturage for flocks of cattle & goats. The Town of Porto Praya is situated on a ledge of rock bounded on either side by the horns of the harbour the ledge is very steep towards the sea about 80--100ft high & in some places crossed by a broad passable belt of limestone a former upheaved beach now covered with another layer of trass.
1st Excursion
Nov[embe]r 14th
This evening afternoon as soon as we had cast anchor I landed along with Mr McCormick & Wilmot. On entering the Town a most wretched negro village we went to call upon the Consul (Barton) who had just recovered from the coast fever & looked a most wretched object. The Thermometer outside his verandah[sic] stood at 84.5 in the shade[.] Except a few Portuguese there are no European inhabitants, native free backs inhabiting the islands. On landing the Agave was first seen but very stunted, & a new sp of Papaver? (n. 135 C.D.V[?].). There were a very few Cocoanut[sic] trees. Only in one place near the Town were they abundant & that was on descending on the opposite side w[h]ere I was most gratified by passing through a grove of Cocoanuts, Dates, Bananas & Palmettos, the latter used for hats, making brushes &c. The niggers were a fine race remarkably erect[?] always laughing & begging. The women wore bugles & bangles, & were clothed in wrappers of blue & red cloth with tartan turbans. We now intended to go in search of the Baobab tree. After passing the Cocoa nuts we came to a little dirty pool of water which doubtless makes the Town so unhealthy as it is[,] after passing it all was very barren the soil was black volcanic scorching hot & almost destitute of any herbage but a few Convolvulusses. -- Grylli were in immense abundance & very large. We here missed our way & proceeded to the westward of the Island wandering among shallow stoney[sic] valleys whose bases supported a few oil trees Ricinus communis? (not the castor oil). The herbs were chiefly Sidas[,] small dry grasses[,] a few Leguminous plants, Euphorbias[,] Polygala arenaria & such like. The oil tree supplies oil for the natives' Lamps it is very good -- a few stunted Acacias were the only trees on whose branches a beautiful Kingfisher (Dacaelo jagoensis according to Darwin) sat hunting insects. The oil bushes are frequented by a large & beautiful spider. It builds its nest by throwing a very long & strong fibre from tree to tree I measured one about 12ft long, from this it suspends a vertical nest like our common Epeira Diadema, but infinitely larger & stronger. How it throws its thread except it be aided by the electricity of the air I am at a loss to conceive. In the centre of this nest a huge fellow takes his stand vividly marked with bands of black red & yellow, near him I have seen the remains of insects 2 inches & more long. This species seems gregarious & in

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different corners of the nest there are as many as 30 or 40 hungry retainers or poor relations with long legs lank bellies & more ignoble quarry beside them. One large spider invariably remains chief in the centre whether the others are his progeny or usurpers to whom he gives accommodation as long as they remain of a size not to be dangerous, I cannot tell but I constantly observed that they never approach the big one. The regularity of the net inclines me to believe that it is all the work of one animal. In cool valleys the numbers of these insects is quite astonishing the establishments sometimes covering a space of 3 or 4 square yards. He is very agile & hence difficult to catch, & I confess I was rather afraid of him at first. -- A nigger seeing my perplexity came up & very cunningly kept crept behind the nests, then, squatted upon his hams, he pounced upon them & kept me bottling fast enough. After proceeding for some way over lave streams we descended into a naked flat bottomed valley, in which there was a little stagnant water of a temp. of 86° a Colymbetes & Gyrinus were in it & a Lerindela[?] was flying round it but they were much too agile to be caught -- we again came upon another open plain on which were flocks of goats & many rooks also a vulture (Vultur pycnopterus [percnopterus] according to Mr McCormick). We entered a nigger hut here & were kindly treated by the inmates who gave us some splendid oranges, they were all huddled into one small cottage. Having now gone 5 miles without seeing the Baobab we struck off to the N[orth]. & ascended a hill whose green top invited me (Mr McCormick here parted from us). On the ascent were many small Acacia trees inhabited by a small species of Finch in large flocks, the males & females kept separate & flocked together on separate trees. -- A species of Bidens was very common both here & on the plains it was most troublesome, its black carpels sticking through our stockings into our feet in vast quantities (201 C.D.V.)
The hill was about 1000ft high very stony & was covered at the top with small bushes of oil trees Unona? (n. 131.) -- Bombacae ?? (n. ) Convolvulusses[sic] crept over the stony ground with a few grasses. The summit of the hills was quite bare of trees & about half a mile long, the pasture was of a sp of line[?] oat (n.89). In some places a space of many square yards was covered with the flagelliform stems of a prostrate asclepiadrous plant, (n.132) Sarcophyterra Sarcostemma Br.? Its green appearance attracted me from fully a quarter of a mile. Where it grew nothing was mingled with it & I readily sunk up to my knees among the branches at every step, it produced small umbels of flowers & was entirely leafless. We here put up several flocks of Gahana or Guinea fowl, there were 7 or 8 in a covey, they seemed half as long again as our black cock; they fly neither fast nor far, but are so cautious that they are seldom approached by the sportsman -- Captain Ross procured some afterward their average weight was 2 1/2lb. The natives procure them by sitting under the bushes they frequent till night & then driving whole charges of shot into them from a short distance.

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On the opposite side of the hill was a steep precipice where we saw the guinea fowl sitting in flocks among some bushes a short way off[,] they cackled like barn fowl as they sat. A very beautiful view here presented itself to us, below was a green[?] valley filled with a tropical vegetation of Cocoa nuts, dates, Palmettos, Bananas, Papaws, oranges, Limes[,] Cassava, Sugar cane &c to the N[orth]. & E[ast]. were the high mts of the interior to the W[est]. the sea & to the S[outh]. & around us seemed interminable plains of parched prairie land[.] The rock composing the hills was a very hard trass with chrystals[sic] of Epidote & after descending a steep very similar to the top of Ben Nevis we returned to Porto Praya by a different, but not more interesting route. My collection amounted to about 40 sp. the most remarkable of which I have mentioned above.
On the following day Nov[embe]r. with Mr McCormick & Wilmot we went to visit the bed of fossil shells, by doing which I intended to take in the maritime plants of the Island. The coast was very rocky & one flower only was found that did not grow in the interior. The Sacrostemma was abundant[,] it seems to be confined to the hill tops & seaside. The maritime plant strictly so called is (n 179) a Heliotropium? (n124) was not uncommon. Leaving the coast we directed our course to a valley to the W[est]. of Port Praya in which Mr McCormick had on a former occasion seen wild cats. Our course lay over an immense prairie for some miles covered with brown withered grasses & some dry Sidas. The brittle nature of the grass causes it to collect into little round balls which cluster like burrs upon our clothes but from their sharpness are much more troublesome, creeping up the inside of our trouzers[sic], I this time to escape the capsuls[sic] Bidens, mounted. Boots which were soon cut to pieces by the scorching hot stones of the plains[.] after a walk of a few smiles we came to the valley a dark[?] square cut in the prairie opening out into the sea, its sides were so precipitous that we got down with some difficulty, the bottom was clothed with a greener native vegetation than I had seen. Wild cats, we did not see, but monkeys, owls, kestrels & other hawks were abundant. The bottom was full of small trees in which quantities of the spider built, so numerous were they that we had incessantly to breaks through them while their clammy webs stuck to the face. Several new Sidas were found also a Lobelia, Caryophylla (n. ) Lobelia (n 172) & a small Linaria (n ) Urticeae? (n 113) Paronychia ? (n 112) & one or two Lichens, Amaranthacea, Gamphora (n 103) Croton (n 108) Desmodium (148) Compositae (200); (168.), (177.) --. The pasture ;land was full of quails & a small bird like our hedge sparrow -- Fissidens bryoides not in f[rui]t. grew very sparingly in the valley. -- On the ground was a Cucurbitaceous plant Cucurbite (n 133) very like the Colocynth. After leaving the valley we struck across the country to return by the Adansonia, recrossing the prairies we descended into some plat bottomed valleys in which I found a specimen of a curious Fungus (n 66) & a beautiful green twine[?] that clothed the barren Acacias with dark green foliage (n )

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The Baobab tree except for being quite solitary in a country where trees are so scarce is not striking. The height is about 50 feet with branches of an immense size but which do not spread far. At a distance it somewhat reminded us of an English oak. He trunk is very short & flattened or rather wedge shaped & divides into two at about 3 ft above the ground. Bark smooth for a tree of the size, soft & somewhat spongy. Diameter at 4 1/2 ft above the ground before the fork splits, which is the greatest about 15 ft in one direction & 12 in another [a small aerial view sketch illustrating the formation of the tree appears here with branches labelled 12 & 15] Circumference 38ft.*3 It appears a fast growing tree & Capt. Ross who afterwards visited it thinks that the age assigned to it is probably much exaggerated. Of this however no one can judge except like Adamson[?] he has seen them cut down. There are no other trees near it, one or two more only are in the Island but of no great size. The fruit was unripe & I obtained one bud & a single flower the only one to be seen it soon perished but the bud opened after I got on board, it measured about 6 inches across, was fleshy, small like currant bushes with a sickly flavour, & had a pinkish color.*4
Excursion to the Valley of St Domingo.
*5 Saturday Nov[embe]r. 15th. On this days excursion our time of searching the valley was so late that nothing could be done. I shall therefore incorporate the matter of it with the other excursion to this valley on Monday the 17th. When I set out with Wilmot & Lefroy. For some miles similar barren grounds were passed over to what we had in former excursions. At about 6 miles off we came to a very large plain at the foot of some hills covered with stunted acacias whose branches were uniformly bent in one direction at right angles to the trunk from the force of the trade wind that blows over the plains they presented a very remarkable appearance, there being about 2-300 of them all similar to one another & like so many gigantic finger posts. Their trunks are never large 4ft diam[eter]. Being the greatest I saw, their height 15 feet or so & the horizontal part as much more. Mr Darwin describes this plain & most accurately describes the direction of the branches as NE to N & SW to S. -- One tree particularly attracted my attention, its trunk grew out horizontally from the side of a steep little valley itself in the direction of the trade & I was puzzled to conceive why the branches were all twisted in a corkscrew manner & were much stunted. It seemed to me that the strength & rigor of the trunk had enabled it to resist the force of the wind, as soon however as a branch was thrown out from the summit it was diverted until an increase of leaves & twigs enabled it by breaking the current to assume its wonted direction, when again overstepping these defending twigs, it was again bent. A repetition of those causes made the corkscrew. Hitherto I had found only one new plant a species of Asclepias (n 207), it formed a small shrub with few branches about 6[?] ft high abounding in milky juice[.]
Entering a cottage we were regaled with cocoa nut milk very delicious & cool, any little negro child is able to open a cocoa nut, an English child of the same age could not peel an apple. --
Passing around the base of a mountain wholly composed of red volcanic cinders we came on another extensive plain shut in by mountains, at the further end of this a

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narrow steep pathway led at right angles into the valley of St Domingo. The descent was very steep, the path stony & led under oil bushes & the Unona in profusion. The rocks on each side became gradually steeper until we came out in to the valley itself. The view here was very beautiful, the hills here were remote & enclosed a beautiful broad fertile tract interspersed here & there with cottages & plantations. The mountains were low 2-300 ft & grassy to their summits, the landscape was soft & most pleasing. Turning off to the right we proceded[sic] towards the Town of St Domingo, the precipitous rocks closed in upon our left their basaltic sides black bare & quite perpendicular, fringed at the bottom with vegetation which was though neither rank[?] nor tropical was quite different to what I had seen before. The beautiful kingfisher was chattering among the branches of the trees. After a walk of 12 miles under a blazing sun the change was most delightful to us. The pathway seemed to be the dry bed of a stream full of waterworn boulders of trass rocks[.] We were evidently in the mountainous interior of the Island. Grasses, Sclamums (116, 117, 117 vus) Datura (118), Several species of Lida & Leguminosae, Celosia ? (108) Amaranthacea & Chenopodeae were the type of the herbaceous vegetation. A mile further brought us to the Town of St Domingo & the S. E. extremity of the valley the mountains here were broken into most extraordinary peaks & pinnacles some sharp & some square topped all of blackest basalt & bare of vegetation except on their slopes. At the base of one hill & at a fork in the valley the town was situated, it consisted of a few huts imbedded in green foliage, the hill was steep & a narrow stream ran at the bottom. Plantations of maize & sugar cane were abundant & formed a beautiful feature, interspersed as they were with oranges, Papaws & Cassava. One or two parties were met of negro girls collecting oil seeds in Palmetto leaf baskets. To reach the town we crossed the stream & ascended a hill, going to the most respectable house we enquired for a Venda[?] & were answered by a Portuguese in French who invited us to partake of his hospitality[.] He possessed a very good cottage with outhouse for cooking & stoves, his education had been conducted in France whence he had returned to this Island & after holding several situations was now a Major in the Army & paymaster to the wretched garrison at Port Praya, his appearance & his establishment were not at all in unison with his rank, he had just recovered from the Coast fever & looked a wretched broken down object, who now as thin as a whipping post was once fat, but a few months before, so much had this dire malady, the dread of Europeans, pulled him down, that in describing him to the Consul afterwards as a thin person, he said it must be another, until recollecting himself he added "ah he had the fever I was fat too 2 months ago", he too had just recovered & looked all eyes, mouth & liver.
For dinner we had a fine Turkey, stewed beef, Cassava root soup (very delicate) Cassava roots like potatoes cooked, omlets[sic?], wheaten bread, a variety of small dishes, sugar cane rum[,] agua ardentete [aguardiente], Bananas &c of all of which it was customary to eat a little, everything was good without form or parade little black slaves stood behind each chair, they were most kindly treated & our host would as soon have parted with one as with a child of his own.
I here saw a new fruit, the Mamman (pronounced maman) it is Brazilian, of the size, consistency & with the skin of a turnip, the flesh was in consistency like that of a swede contained four large kernels & had a flavour of quinces, it grew on a small bush[.]

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On approaching the Town a beautiful [1 del. word illeg.] Scrophularineous plant occurred to me with a flower like the Digitalis (127) it was very rare & very little of it was in flower. The asclepiad (n.207) also grow here & the Frenchman informed me that a larger tree of it existed farther up the valley. -- The following information regarding the Island as it was gathered during dinner time I shall insert here, he was the only person we had seen who knew any thing of it. The British Consul had never ever been to this valley[.]
The Island nearly all round consists of broad flats or prairies with round topped hills on them & broad flat bottomed valleys, some of which especially to the northward are very fertile. The central parts are very mountainous & intersected with very beautiful valleys in one if the most remarkable of which we now were. The old capital Trinidad called the Cidad par excellence [Cidade Velha] is now in ruins[.] Mr Darwin describes it under the name of Ribiera Granda & some of our part visited it. St Domingo was the other capital, whose healthy situation recommended it, of it nothing now remains but a few huts. Some Portuguese families are scattered among the valleys of the Islands who possess well cultivated estates, but their houses are generally so hidden that you require to be told of them to find them. The climate is very hot & dry, heating[?] from March till August when the rains set in, they fall very seldom but in immense quantities[,] at St Domingo it rained only three times during the last rainy season. After the rains the Fevers set in & last until February. The plains are most unhealthy the mountains much less so Port Praya most of all. They commence with Diarrhoea, Salts & Lemonade are the only medicines used in Island with the latter of which the Consul cured himself. The highest mt is the peak of St Antonio said to be 5000ft. -- at the back of our friend's house was a fine Tamarind tree & on it one of the only two Fungi I had seen on the Island a Polyporus was found it had been there ever since the rainy season & on being touched fell to powder. After dinner we started to ascend a curious peak, on the ascent we saw plenty of Indigo & maize abut 8ft high, the young heads are very soft juicy & sweet. At the base of a pinnacle of rock that formed the summit the vegetation altered much a Cladonia (n 78) was common, Scrophularia (n128) -- Lotus *6 (n 153) a composite low shrub like an Inula (n 204). Here I had to relinquish my box & commence an arduous climb. At every step I continued stuffing my pockets with plants. On a small ledge there grew a lovely composite herb (n 206) with an bell shaped 5 toothed involucre & red flowers like a Senecio -- The rocks were basaltic & full of small holes in which we put our feet. A most beautiful blue flowered Campanula (n 125) next appeared with corollas 1 1/2 inch long quite European in appearance. Numerous lichens I was obliged to overlook from having left the hammer with the vasculum. The top when gained afforded a most splendid view[,] the valley beneath reminded one of Rasselas being of a rich green & closed in on all sides with perpendicular peaked mountains. A small umbelliferous plant grew here like a Daucus & a lovely Fern Aspidium (n 79)

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numerous Hawks, Buzzards & vultures kept wheeling about the narrow pinnacle on which we stood eying us askance as they passed. Two specimens of a small tree Euphorbiaceae ? (n. ) grew here one sp. was in flower it abounded in a white milky juice. We descended with considerable difficulty. The only new plant was a mustard the common one (n. ) at the base of the pinnacle I found a Euphorbia like Lothnaria[?] (n. ) on which a caterpillar of the Sphinx Euphorbia was feeding. Having arrived at the Frenchmans after emptying my pockets into my travelling portfolio we commenced our return by a different route. -- We ascended the valley for about a mile & then turned off to the right ascending a very steep mountain by a Ziggy road. The ascent was through hanging brushwood. The night was excessively beautiful the moon shone bright & numerous Cicada, crickets & Lizards kept up a shrill & deafening croak[?]. From the summit we had a most lovely view. The pale but bright light of a Tropical moon shed a beautiful lustre over the valley we had ascended from, it gilded the tops of the surrounding peaks, added depth to the shade of the foliage & so lighted up the bottom of the valley that we could just distinguish the houses of St Domingo far beneath us[.] Having 12 miles before us we took a last look at this most fascinating scene & commenced our return. Our road soon channelled into a goat path which we lost & with the moon to guide us we fought our way through groves of oil bushes, steep precipices or valleys often obliged us to seek a new direction & often the bushes grew so close that we could not get through. -- On one or two occasions I saw a beautiful halo round the moon sparkling with iridescent colors I was most puzzled by only observing it when among the trees & soon found that it was caused by my viewing that planet through one of the spiders webs described before. After some hours we came to the base of a red hill we to recognised & arrived early next morning at Porto Praya.
My only other excursion at St Jago was to Quail Island & as there was nothing Botanical worth detailing in the course of it I shall not detail it.
*7From the Cape the account of Trinidad shall be forwarded with St Helena.
Jos D Hooker [signature]

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1839 December 3d. Hove too off St Pauls Rocks -- These are so accurately described by Mr Darwin, that I have nothing farther to add, except that they are totally destitute of any thing approaching to a land flora. One seaweed & one only, is very common growing on the rocks below high water mark (n 209) & serves to make a rude nest for the Noddy (Sterna stolida), whose nest, on these singular rocks, is, I am told, like that of the Chinese swallows edible nest. It is built against the perpendicular face of the cliffs, as security against the attacks of the crab that subsists on its & Boobies eggs. The latter bird lays on the bare rock without any pretensions to a nest, this is never the case with the Noddy, when its eggs are laid on the rocks, it invariably supplies a scanty bedding of a few feathers & some of the above mentioned seaweed. For these remarks I am indebted to the officers who landed, an opportunity which I did not enjoy, from the great danger and trouble attending the landing of the first boat, it was deemed undesirable to send another.
December. 18. Early this morning we sighted the small island of Trinidad. It is a small island large rugged rock arising out of the sea apparently inaccessible on all sides, about 6 miles long & 3 broad, with a little green vegetation in the valleys which were in general shallow & bounded by perpendicular precipices. The mountains were remarkably rugged, with a few groves of trees under some cliffs near their summits, their height might be 2500 ft their tops were jagged & extremely irregular -- To the windward there is a large valley full of green herbage, where a small settlement from the Brazilian coast once lived. The surf however is so high here that it was impossible to land -- To Leeward the coast is rugged in the extreme. A most remarkable rock called the nine pin stands out here in bold relief from the rest, its base is partly in the sea, & connects behind with the mainland. It consists of a narrow isolated pillar of rock, a perfect cylinder, about 700 feet high, slightly curved outwards, so that its top would plumb the sea; it is perfectly bare of any vegetation, & formed of volcanic rock like the rest of the island, ear the top there was no appearance of Basaltic columns. Numerous birds built upon it. We hove to at about 3 miles from this most forbidding stone, where the boats were got out & a party landed, the swell was very high. The Birds very numerous & very tame, they were Shearwater, Noddys (Sterna stolida) & a very beautiful small milk white tern. There is a small cove to the S[outh]. of the nine pin rock, for which we started[?] & opposite to it a black cleft rock rises out of the sea about 180 ft high & covered with the dung of sea birds, which looked like a stratum of lime & caused a heavy sweetish smell [2 words del, illeg.]. Finding it impossible to land here we coasted along

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to the S[outh] & W[est]. passing a large bluff cliff till we arrived at the S[outh] E[ast]. part of the island near sugarloaf hill. We saw numerous white stumps of trees lying scattered about, which puzzled me extremely as, except at the tops of the hill there was no appearance of wood of any kind. Finding it equally impossible to land here, we retraced our steps way to the N[orth] E[ast] angle of the island, here the coast was still more inaccessible & from the heavy surf sea that came rolling round the point to have attempted the windward side would have been time thrown away. When about to give up the attempt one of the party espied a small cove to the N[orth]. of the nine pin rock & there we landed with great difficulty. A narrow platform of rock afforded us footing. When within 100 yards of the shore, a grapnel was dropped & the boat was ten backed to the rocks, a towman carefully passing out the rope, then taking advantage of a lull another seaman with a lead line jumped ashore & made it fast, a third was stationed at this line in the boat then, as the surf rose, the grapnel line was held tight & the lead line paid out, thus preventing the boat from being cast ashore, when the reflux came the contrary was done. In the intervals we jumped ashore & the instruments were handed out after[?] to us -- To gain the shore beach from this we had to walk along a ledge of rock up to our middles in water, carrying the instruments by terns both men & officers. Only one small seaweed grew upon the rocks & no maritime plants. Two species of shell were common, also an Echinus & a crab, the same as we had seen at St Pauls & the Cape de Verde (Grapsus pictus?*8) a Madropora ( ) grew on the sunken rocks & some fish, the old wife, wasvery common. The beach was narrow & composed of rounded volcanic pebbles. The rocks were bare to a degree, nothing grew but two sp[ecies] of Cyperus one rather large, the other tufted like Nardus stricta & a small fern, which was dry & crisped. After ascending about 600 feet of shelving debris we found ourselves at the foot of a continuous precipice, that shut us in completely, the rocks were in most places perpendicular & smooth, without a sign of vegetation but a few lichens; in other places the rocks were broken up into quadrangular blocks, which when moved came tumbling down & bringing others with them which continued their course till they reached the Captain's instruments on the beach where he was conducting his experiments. At this elevation a tufted grass (n.216) grew very sparingly. It was a great disappointment to be shut out from the windward & more fertile portion of the island, the more especially as this side was so barren. The rocks cliffs were composed of a light colored volcanic rock with very many chrystals[sic] of feldspar. Trass dykes black, were not uncommon intersecting them, &, as we passed in the boats we saw some fine specimens of them & of sections of lava currents which at

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different epochs had flowed over the older basaltic rocks. Some mica was found in several places, in small flat dark colored plates. In some cases when there had been water courses, the rocks had assumed a red color from the iron they contained, which materially affected Captain Ross's magnetical experiments.
Goats & wild pigs are said to be very common, except one of the former we saw none. Some white trunks of trees were found here about 8-10 ft long. & 1-1 1/2 ft in diameter, such as we had seen all over the coast as we passed. They could not be blown down by a hurricane for they all lay in different directions, nor can I assign any other cause for their appearance than that the introduction of goats, by eating up the young herbage, & leaving the old wood to perish, had effected their destruction as was the case in St Helena (See Darwin). The stumps were often rotten & the soil about their roots is evidently in the same state as it has existed for many years, this I can prove by the cyperus (n.215) which grew near one of them roots & whose roots increase so that, in fine they make a tufted soil for themselves, increasing by innovations like Bryum Ludwigii, on this soil, the successive increments for many years being distinctly marked. Any internal heat which might have killed the tree must have killed this little plant, & a torrent which might have carried away the soil & thus effected their destruction would equally carry away this little grass. The rocks were full of the nests of the Tern & shearwater -- a spotless white color. Of insects I saw a Hemerobius, a small fly, cockroaches from the wreck of a vessel, & common house flys & some spiders. A land crab was very common under a stone, & commences opening his claws a putting to his mouth in a menacing attitude, evidently expressing a desire to eat you, opening his formidable mandibles at the same time, he is very agile though not nearly so much so as the Grapsus which is hence very difficult to catch for its swiftness. The land crab did not occur on the very beach but a few feet above it as high as we ascended -- Capt. Ross when embarking attempted & very nearly succeeded in catching a sea snake 3 ft long
I saw no vestige of any other branch object of natural history on this curious island but what are mentioned above, except a very pretty fern that was given me[,] an Acrostichum? Which I lost as well as some of my other collections by a hearty ducking I experienced in embarking[.]

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James Bay, St Helena, Saturday February 1st [1840]
I landed this afternoon (we arrived yesterday) to take a look at the town & to gather anything I might find in its vicinity. The total barrenness of the clack rocks surrounding the town quite disappointed me -- The Salsola salsa ? an small Compositeae & a Portulaceae? were all the native plants I saw. The Banian[sic] [Banyan] tree I saw growing for the first time. Except a very few trees in James Valley & some fir trees crowning the hills at 700-1000 ft elevation, no tree or shrub are to be seen near James Town. --
Sunday Feb[ruar]y 2nd. This morning I landed with Mr McCormick &attended divine service (for the first time for 5 months ashore) at the military church at James Town. After service we went out with Mr Gullian (the harbour master) to visit Mr Gideon whose house is situated 7 miles off towards the other side of the Island from whence I intended to proceed to Mr Wilde's the Chief Justice, to whom I had letters of introduction from Mr Harvey. We were well mounted & proceeded by a zig zag road up the face of the hill which bounds James Town to the West. For the first 700 feet every thing was very barren, nothing but the Opuntia & large tracts of an introduced Cape Mesambryanthemum with a very little grass (Cynodon) here & there, the soil was black or red volcanic on which the sun beat with great strength. The natives of the Island whose cottages we passed live in great poverty, they are a mixed race between the Europeans & African, with sallow brown complexions. At an elevation of about 700 feet vegetation appeared [of] a very different appearance, the valleys of the interior were filled with woods chiefly Scotch fir, Larch & Oak all small though very healthy, the roadsides were lined with Buddleias, Hibiscuses, Gossypium, Solanum lycopersicum, & quantities of a blackberry which produced abundance of berries, Malvas & Geraniums were equally abundant luxuriant. All however is introduced vegetation & that within these few years[.] The whole interior of the island is of an average height of 1000 ft. Diana's Peak is about 2000 more & there are several spots of intermediate height. At that particular elevation, there is hardly a trace of the original plants of the soil, they having been completely destroyed by the introduction of pigs & goats into the island, which cut up all the young trees leaving the old ones which are invariably succulent Compositae to persist, or else tearing off their bark which is soft & loose. In addition the soil & climate is so well adapted to the growth & increase of European forest trees, which when once they have formed a shelter sow themselves, that there remains no opportunity for the native trees to recover the soil, which is now dry & not adapted to their habits the rich vegetable mould which they formed being swept by torrent into the valleys subsequent to their destruction. On the northern slope of Diana's Peak I have seen a broad belting of tree put a stop to the descent of the cabbage trees (a name given to the 6 or 8 sp[ecies] of native arborescent compositae) which cannot exist along with

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any other vegetation that overtops them nor can they grow singly. Another tree is said to be completely extirpated the ebony large masses of the wood are still found in some of the valleys though I was unable to procure any specimens. Fossil shells of a terrestrial species Bulinus are also found in quantities on & near the surface of the soil in several places, of a few species that generally inhabits woods, one smaller species is still abundant on the leaves of the Melanodendron upon Dianas Peak. Though the introduced trees have adapted themselves to this soil & climate, the animal kingdom & other indigenous vegetation are [1 deleted word, illeg.] not to be found under their shelter. The insects & birds which I observed among the native trees when were not to be found in these plantations; of the birds in particular I remarked this, it is also the case with the Lichens & Insects. Two species of Usnea & another Lichen being found on the fir &oaks only. Whilst only one species of plant Rubus pinnatus (an indigenous sp[ecies]) grew indifferently on open banks & in the wood never in native wood ‑- The Furze, Ulex Europaeus is very abundant, all over the island few plants grow under it though it affords shelter to birds in abundance which build in it, I could not make out whether any of these fed upon its seeds, it flowers all the year round. Where a cabbage tree began to grow in a fir wood it assumed the appearance of a succulent herb, the leaves were unnaturally pale colored & the stems purple -- The native plants of the island are so few in number, & my opportunities of observing so narrow, that I venture these remarks only as what occurred to me in passing along & not as conclusions drawn from continued observations. It would be a curious subject to trace what changes the island has undergone within the last century or two, were it possible to know what native plants are now extinct & the heights of their habitats -- On cutting down some native wood about 700 ft above the level of the sea, a few years ago the wire grass Cynodon stellatus? immediately sprung up & covered the ground -- A large property Deadwood is so called for the quantities of decayed timber found there, some of them were covered with an Usnea of which specimens were given me & which is of a considerable size (is it a slow growing genus?) --
The above are the only remarks I have to add to Mr Darwin's excellent account of the island (see also Beatson's St Helena a book I have not yet seen)
After a ride of about 7 miles, chiefly through fir woods among which the road led, occasionally catching a view of the fine valleys with which the island is intersected, we came in sight of the sea on the southern side of the island, & at the end of a broad deep valley, down whose sides we had to descend by a zigzag road. We were about 2000 ft above the level of the sea. This valley is about 3 miles long, clothed at its bottom & for 3/4 way up its sides with plantations, the white country houses of different gentlemen, chiefly of retired officers, being scattered among the gloomy foliage, the upper end which was very broad was shut in by Diana's Peak about

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presenting a broad steep precipice of 3000 ft clothed with the most beautiful soft green foliage of the cabbage trees which, descending down into the valley, formed a most agreeable contrast to the sombre hues of the fir forests. A dense fog being over part of the mountain, detached portions of which were drawn lower down by the wind, & seemed to cross the green foliage in broad white belts; every now & *9 then we were enveloped in a dense dense mist that wetted us to the skin & suited well the firs, gorse & junipers & other accompaniments of a Scottish scene. A descent of a mile or so brought us to Mr Gideon's where we were most kindly welcomed in true Highland fashion, dry clothes were furnished to us & a fire was lighted to add to our comforts which with a good dinner soon put us all to rights. From Mr Gideon[']s I had intended crossing an intermediate ravine to visit Mr Wilde's the gentleman to whom Mr Harvey had introduced me but the fog was so dense that without a road to guide it would have been impossible to have found the way. The vegetation (introduced) of the gardens & cultivated grounds partook of an European, Tropical & Australian character, --Acacias, Casaurina's[sic] [Casuarinas] Pittosporums, Billasderas[sic] [Billarderias], New Zealand Dammaras, Eucalyptuses flourished with Scotch firs, Plane Trees, peaches[,] apples & pears & plums. Some of the E[ast] Indian Amoranth Scitamineae, Aroidaceae, pineapples & other tropical & extratropical fruits & flowers. Roses & Hydrangeas were in perfect profusion the latter bearing heads 1 foot in diameter. Camellias & the Tea Plant & other Chinese shrubs succeeded as well as at the Jardine in Madeira. The climate is always moist from the broad belt of Diana's Peak catching the moisture brought by the S[outh]E[ast]. trades & precipitating it in the form of hard rain, Scotch mist, or fog, into the valley below -- mosses lichens & ferns grow on the stones though they were of trass & not well suited to their propagation. The slopes of the hills were covered with grass chiefly Anthoxanthum odoratum which is of a large size on which immense flocks of sheep & cattle fed. Just before dark the evening cleared up & we ventured out to enjoy the view which was very grand[.] The bright green verdure of Diana's Peak was beautiful in the extreme clothed to its summit with a native vegetation the cliffs & precipices were covered with fir plantations whose deep black was set off by the white houses & their accompanying green pastures & lawns, a stream ran at the bottom of the valley about 700 feet below us which led to the sea at Sandy bay, a narrow inlet about 3 miles off bounded by black rocks on to which the surf beat with tremendous violence looking to us like a white ribband lining the shore. Though it is utterly impossible to land upon this narrow beach the hills around are planted with cannon as a

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further protection. The hills above the sea are very ragged & quite barren, of a red volcanic soil, on those to the right of the bay are several remarkable rocks called respectively Lot, Lots wife, Lots children & the asses-ears, they are narrow perpendicular isolated rocks whose bases are in some cases narrower than their summits, they are of course quite inaccessible & of a height from 50 to 200 feet -- With my glass I could detect their basaltic structure the columns being broken & lying in a horizontal direction. They are said to have been left standing by the disintegration of the surrounding soil. At some little distance off I was shown a hill covered with the stringwood tree Acalypha rubra ? of which two small specimens were procured for me afterwards. -- We rode back in the evening & after getting another ducking arrived back at about 10PM*10
Excursion to Diana's Peak
Having seen Mr Wilde in James' Town & received an invitation to spend a day at Rose Cottage I accompanied Mr Helps the Colonial Chaplain to the forces. We were mounted & started early. Our road was for some way the same as that leading to Mr Gideon[']s f until we had ridden 5 miles when we turned off to the right & crossing a shoulder of the peak at about 2000ft elevation entered the head of the valley the view from here was most striking, of the numerous knolls & cliffs covered with black pine trees beyond which the curious rocks mentioned above stood out in bod relief against the sea whose horizon from our elevated situation was much raised. Colonel Doveton's house was under our feet built in a dense wood of scotch firs upon a little hillock which one side of which was precipitous & very bold. Two New Zealand pines about 70 feet high were very remarkable though they grew amongst their Caledonian congenors[,] from their bright green foliage[.] They were by very far the largest I had ever seen though we passed within a few yards of them I could not detect any cones upon them. On the roadsides at about 1500ft elevation a little Rubus was very common like a procumbent raspberry it bears a large flower & a berry very like that of the rasp but of a fainter color & with smaller receptacles it is very juicy but rather mawkish, like a water sodden blackberry with a peculiar I thought resinous flavour & no trace of acidity it is the R. pinnatus DC. . Juncus bufonius grew in a ditch on the roadside & an Isolepis like sawvii a small Ranunculus was very common among the herbage which was formed of Anthoxanthum odoratum & a species of Poa. Lichens of one or two species were common upon the trees (fir) & banks which were covered with a small fern (n ) & a sp of Dicranum out of fruit {I gathered it in fruit on the peak (n )} a few pheasants & one or two small birds were all we saw. There are so few birds on the island that there is no check to the inroads of insects which are particularly destructive to the crops & culinary vegetables. -- An Avenue (like Mr Wilson's at Ben More) led us to Mr Wildes house which faced Sandy bay (dist[ance]. 3 miles). The fir trees were planted close to the back of the house & an open clear space & slope was laid out in Garden ground. A row of about 50 Hydrangeas in full bloom with heads of blue flowers at least

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1 1/4 foot across was very conspicuous. Roses, Fleur de lis, Jessamines [Cestrum], & peach trees were all very abundant. Round the house were planted Ivy, Holly, nut, box & oaks with a dine New Holland Pittosporum about 20 ft high, Acacias, Daturas very fine indeed & bearing a profusion of trumpet shaped flowers with many other plants of all which I have a list with their peculiarities situation &c from which I have attempted to illustrate the Botanical Geography of the island, as far as it is affected by climate. There is no regular summer & winter in the island accompanied with a change of temperature, the present season is that of the summer rains which are slight showers & fogs; the winter rains are heavy tropical showers. Hence most European & extratropical plants flower all the year round & degenerate rapidly, especially the fruit trees. The herbs (strawberries &c &c) never fruit, but increase very rapidly & are in perpetual bloom. On my advice being asked, I ventured to recommend that thy should be planted from suckers during the winter rains & that all disposition to rear too much should be checked, till the petals dropped off when they should be covered up for some time, further, I said if that does not do try the contrary plan covering them at first & suddenly expose them checking still all suckers; between these two methods I hope I have hit a gardeners plan or what will look like one, if the non orthodox plan succeeds my suggestion will, I hope, be looked upon as the invention of a fertile brain instead of the guess of an ignoramus.
The plant that that pleased me more than any other, was an Araucaria of which there was one very specimen & two or three smaller ones in Mr Wilde's garden, it was planted before the present owner possessed the house & the seeds were sent from Brazil, it strikes me that there is a Brazilian species supposed to differ from the Chilean one which this (from Sprengel's description) does, the leaves not being closely imbricated & the cones being situated at a distance from the terminations of the branches. The trunk is straight about 50ft high, round, smooth, straight & bare of branches for 7 feet when few dead branches appear; about 5 feet higher the leafing branches begin stem. The stem is marked with parallel rings like cask hoops, placed close together, of a chestnut brown color, smooth & clean, at every 8th or 10th ring a larger one intervenes, when the old branches arranged in a whorl of 6 or 8 are given off, these larger rings are about a 4 feet apart -- at an height of 12 or 14 feet these rings disappear, there is no sign of them or the branches or on the stems of the young trees from 6 to 20 feet high. The branches are in whorls & bent down, the extremities of the first whorl nearly touching the ground the branchlets are long & hung down, thickly covered with leaves, the trunks above the branches & the branches themselves are covered with brown dead leaves which are much broader than the live ones; leaves sessile, ovate, acuminate, rigid, deep, green, shining, striated. Cones situated (only on one tree) on the upper branches, solitary, erect, about 3 feet from the termination of the branches, thin scales with recurved leafy points, they are said never to ripen on trial, though I pointed out several young trees of the same kind which had escaped Mr Wilde's observation. From a distance the tree looks like a pyramid of green foliage which has a soft appearance from the feathery arrangement of the branchlets. After breakfast we started for the peak, about 3 miles off. A walk of about two

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brought us to the cabbage trees, at an elevation of 2000 feet; they form a loose moist wood, three species came under my notice, there are 5 or 6, all of the same appearance. Their trunks are short & branch a little above the ground, the bark as well as the wood is soft & brittle somewhat spongy, a few Lichens grew on them, the leaves are always produced at the termination of the branches & are thick & succulent, from their axes a terminal corymb of white flowers is shot forth, for these I was too late; they are of a particularly rich green color & belong to the genera, Melanodendron Lachanodes & Commidendron, the first & last being by far the most abundant, but almost entirely out of flower, they turn black in drying. -- The ascent was very narrow but over a strong soil, covered thickly with bramble branches, Anthoxanthum & an Agrostis considered peculiar to the island -- ascending a little higher we came to a narrow ridge of rock, bounded by a precipice on either side, covered thickly with trees & ferns & the remains of the native vegetation of the island, the Commidendron (n.281) and a Phylica rosmarinifolia Hedyotis arborea ? (n.288) formed the greater part of the wood which covered the rocks & precipices with a dense vegetation, the spaces between their trunks being filled up with ferns a Lobellia (n.286) & a small shrub of a Boella (n.277) a remarkably beautiful plant, bearing large white bell shaped flower like those of Menziesia polifolia but larger, at about 2400 feet I saw the last Agave which by the bye is common below, here the Tree ferns began with an accompanying Cryptogamia flora -- The stems of the Dicksonia are generally very short, 2ft, densely clothed with black fibres from the to petioles downwards, it is easily detached from the ground & nestles generally among the cabbage trees, throwing out its beautiful leaves when over the grass & rocks & mosses, ns. (257, 258, 260 & 261) being almost peculiar to it, the beautiful Hymnopyllum (n.260) grows also on the ground, a fine Sclotheimia crawls over rocks & roots, after ascending its trunks, the Jungermannia (n.240) forms a green carpeting over its fibres near the ground whilst the Hypnum (n.251) grows on the stumps of the old stipertes petioles, with which the side is covered. A curious conferva nestles amongst the downy fibres, that grow at the top of the stem (n.219), & one Lichen (n. ) sometimes inhabits its stem branches. The strong black fibres of this fern are not confined to the stem near the root, but grow out from all parts of the stem (as the stem one sent, an average one will show.) In the very old specimens they do not appear, being probably rotted off, but this is a rare case. Only one very fine specimen that came up to my ideas of a tree fern remained, it projected from a [1 deleted word, illeg.] cliff near the summit & formed a remarkable feature, its stem (12ft.) was gracefully curved though apparently erect, & from the top threw out a beautiful tuft of waving fronds, about 4 feet long, from its grace & beauty I though it the most enchanting production that Botany can boast of, far superior to a Palm with all its boasted charms to which I can only yield the apple (palm I was going to say) for utility -- Its trunk is of a rich brown & rose from a rugged

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rock on the border of a precipice, at higher than the surrounding trees, its tuft of fronds was bright green & more elegant than that of the palms, from wanting the dead leaves that hang down in stiff straight lines from the summit of a Cocoa nut tree. A small specimen of the Boella was growing half way up its trunk as well as 2 or three ferns & other Cryptogamia. Wherever a bare bank of earth occurred the Marchantia (n.237) occurred; the other Jungermania were rare -- the Dicranum (n.249) was common in large tufts, but rare in fruit. Sticta aurata was common upon the trunks & stems of the Cabbage trees. A large Carex grew among the grass (n.265) & a paspalum ? (n.270). A little to the northward of the peak, on some loose stones the Roella (n.280) & the Juncus ? (n.266) grew but very sparingly. The top consists of a long very narrow walk or ridge of volcanic stones, covered with verdure, looking down on either side nothing was to be seen but a forest of verdure green with here & there the tufted top of the tree fern intruding among the other foliage. The elevated nature of the island was clearly seen, nothing but a few hill tops on all sides bounded by an elevated horizon of sea except at Sandy bay, where the narrow inlet showed the coast a beach of not many yards long. Very little verdure appeared any where, for the black forests of firs which were here & there scattered over the otherwise naked hills & table lands of the interior does not deserve that name. After adding every thing I could see to my collection, which included the only shell I had seen, (A small Bulinus common o the Cabbage Trees), I descended to rejoin my companions, who I had left at the foot of the ridge. The scene was so very peculiar to me that I was loth to leave it; a rich vegetation with little variety, but that little new to me, confined to a space of a few square miles, comprised all the native plants that occurred for many thousand square leagues around. The green top of the peak was the only green I had seen for nearly 3 months, & another month must elapse before I could see any more. Taking with me a small stem of the Dicksonia I returned to rejoined Mr Wilde & we then returned to Rose Cottage, where, through Mrs Wilde's kindness I was again made comfortable. Having procured a ladder & Mr Wilde's permission to procure take a cone of the Araucaria, I ascended the tree for that purpose, the ladder took me to the first whorl of branches, after which the ascent would have been easy but for the branches being covered with the old pungent leaves, so densely, that I had to clear the branch with my coateau de chasse (or plant cutter) before I could lay hold of them; the cones themselves grow s far out upon the top slender branches, that I could only reach one by holding on to an upper branch & kicking it off with my foot, those procured were however the largest on the tree. I am indebted to Mrs Wilde for one or two nice shells of the island which were in her cabinet. The arrangements of Rose Cottage are in every respect so English, that it would have been impossible at night to undeceive oneself. Tea was served before a comfortable fire & the conversation as usual turned upon home. I was taxed for a description of all the new inventions & the results of societies, associations, projected travels &c. Mr Daguerre, steam carriages, the new gardens in Regents Park, The French & American expedition, together with magnetism animal & physical, were compassed in a manner which showed how well the scanty

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opportunities of acquiring knowledge & recent information were improved. Hardly 5 ships come straight from England to St Helena in the year, all the news is second hand from the Cape. When one ship is heard of she is looked for with what appeared to me a most amusing anxiety the moment she is seen above the horizon, from a height of 600 feet, she is signalized all over the island. Our having sailed was heard of, both from the Cape & from America by the Great Western! Long before our arrival & f before our topsails were above the horizon we were at once known[?] from the color color of our canvas (navy,) the direction we were coming, & the admirable manner our ships were navigates whilst making a dead beat against the trade. On my walking through the Town every attention was shown by all (except the military of the 91 Reg[iment]) & when they understood what my plant box was for, they volunteered their services to assist me. To Mr & Mrs Helps I am most particularly indebted, for the only minerals that have almost ever been found in the island, as far as I can judge they are Tourmaline, Cubicite & Carb[onate]. Of Line. Mr Helps before even knowing my name, on hearing I was going botanizing to Mr Wilde's, asked to be my guide & accompanied me up Diana's Peak. Another unknown in seeing me working up one of the steep roads overtook me & insisted on my mounting his horse no slight boon under a tropical sun, had I indeed taken advantage of all the kind invitations given me I had had work for a fortnight more.
On From any other excursions I added little or nothing to my Botanical Collections during them , & so I forbear to copy them from my journal. On Sunday morning Feb[ruar]y we weighed anchor & stood out again to sea.


1a. These islands are now known as Arquipélago de Trindade e Martim Vaz and are not to be confused with the West Indies island of Trinidad. 'Trinidad' is the spelling used by Joseph Hooker throughout his correspondence, references to Trinidad Island throughout this letter refer to this archipelago.
1. The address of the recipient appears here as the letter would originally have been folded to form its own 'envelope'. The address reads "Sir W[illia]m Jackson Hooker | Woodside Crescent | Glasgow".
2. The remainder of the text is written vertically down the right hand side of the page alongside the recipient's address.
3. The annotation recording the circumference is written vertically in the left hand margin of the page.
4. Pencil annotation below this paragraph reads 'Journal 34'.
5. Pencil annotation written next to this paragraph in the left margin reads: 'Journal 35'.
6. A blank space has been clearly left here in the original manuscript text.
7. A pencil annotation written in the left margin adjacent to this sentence reads: 'see journal p 45'.
8. The accepted scientific name is now Grapsus grapsus.
9. A pencil annotation written in the left margin reads: 'livelier in Journal'.
10. A pencil annotation written in the right margin reads: '(J.57'. Presumed to be a reference to Joseph Hooker's journal.

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